Bonn-Aachen International Center for IT (B-IT), Dahlmannstr. 2, 53113 Bonn, GermanyAbstract: Discovery of prognostic and diagnostic biomarker gene signatures for diseases, such as cancer, is seen as a major step towards a better personalized medicine. During the last decade various methods, mainly coming from the machine learning or statistical domain, have been proposed for that purpose. However, one important obstacle for making gene signatures a standard tool in clinical diagnosis is the typical low reproducibility of these signatures combined with the difficulty to achieve a clear biological interpretation. For that purpose in the last years there has been a growing interest in approaches that try to integrate information from molecular interaction networks. Here we review the current state of research in this field by giving an overview about so-far proposed approaches.
Ten years have past since the publish of human genomics maps in Nature and Science magazine
- International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409, 860–921 (2001).
- Venter, J. C. et al. The sequence of the human genome. Science 291, 1304–1351 (2001).
. last issue on Nature and Science published lost of paper and news of the progress in this area. Human Genome project(HGP) do bring the genome technology to all ares in biology and changing the research style. So many data come form the high-through put machine, its a golden age for computational biologist. See more form here:
- Science: A Celebration of the Genome, Part I: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/331/6017/546.1.full?rss=1
- Nature:The genome at ten, http://www.nature.com/news/specials/humangenome/index.html
I update my manuscripts in arXiv and submit to journal. the manuscript was doing numerical simulation of the evolutionary fate of mutant gene at duplicate loci. Diffusion method was used in the mutation diffusion in the natural population, and Ito’s stochastic difference equation was employed to approximating the 4-dimension Kolmognov backwark equation. For more detail, please see my manuscripts bellow:
Numerical Studies of the Evolutionary Rate of Mutant Allele at Duplicate LociYupeng Cun
Gene duplications are one of major primary driving forces for evolutionary novelty. We took population genetics models of genes duplicate to study how evolutionary forces acting during the fixation of mutant allele at duplicate loci. We study the fixation time of mutant allele at duplicate loci under double null recessive model (DNR) and haploinsufficient model (HI). And we also investigate how selection coefficients with other evolutionary force influence the fixation frequency of mutant allele at duplicate loci. Our results suggest that the selection plays a role in the evolutionary fate of duplicate genes, and tight linkage would help the mutant allele preserved at duplicate loci. Our theoretical simulation agree with the genomics data analysis result well, that selection, rather than drift, plays a important role in the establishment of duplicate loci, and recombination have a great opportunity to be acted upon selection.
A recent paper , Schwarz et al. 2010, was using kernel method to reconstruction the phylogenetic tree, which usually done by maximum likelihood estimation. Their using finite-state transducers(FST) to create a alignment-free kernel for evolutionary comparison of molecular sequence, and their call it a rational kernel approach. Their method overcome the gap in alignment sequence. As we known, the gap can influence the accuracy of phylogenetic tree.
Kernel method had approved to be a powerful tool for classification, and their method do help to classify the twilight-zone in very close sequence(see the following picture). The result in their paper is a new and accurate way of determining evolutionary distances in the twilight zone of sequence alignments that is suitable for large homologies datasets.
The method for phylogenetic/ phylogenomic reconstruction are still challenged problems in evolution biology. Schwarz et al. ‘s paper only do misclassification, maybe we can see the kernel method for estimating the divergence time, effective population size, recombination rate and mutation rate in nature population.
(A phylogenetic trees of the Chlorophyceae, which reconstructed by FST distance (left) using the full kernel score, F84 distance estimation on a Muscle alignment (top right) and maximum-likelihood tree on the same Muscle alignment (bottom right).)
Some recent paper on how disease gene network works and the metastasis of cancer. Machine Learning is a good tool for study the relation between individual gene and disease. here are the papers:
Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks
Information, trends, behaviors and even health states may spread between contacts in a social network, similar to disease transmission. However, a major difference is that as well as being spread infectiously, it is possible to acquire this state spontaneously. For example, you can gain knowledge of a particular piece of information either by being told about it, or by discovering it yourself. In this paper we introduce a mathematical modeling framework that allows us to compare the dynamics of these social contagions to traditional infectious diseases. We can also extract and compare the rates of spontaneous versus contagious acquisition of a behavior from longitudinal data and can use this to predict the implications for future prevalence and control strategies. As an example, we study the spread of obesity, and find that the current rate of becoming obese is about 2 per year and increases by 0.5 percentage points for each obese social contact, while the rate of recovering from obesity is 4per year. The rates of spontaneous infection and transmission have steadily increased over time since 1970, driving the increase in obesity prevalence. Our model thus provides a quantitative way to analyze the strength and implications of social contagions.